Home Field and Swamp: Animals and Their Habitats


Resources and Acknowledgements

Abbott, J.C. (2005) Dragonflies and Damselflies of Texas and the South-Central United States: Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Alden, P. and G. Nelson (1999) National Audubon Society® Guide to the Southeastern States. NY:Knopf.

Allen, T.J., J.P. Brock and J. Glassberg (2005) Caterpillars in the Field and Garden: A Field Guide to the Butterfly Caterpillars of North America.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arnett, R.H. and R.L. Jacques (1981) Simon & Schuster's Guide to Insects.  NY: Simon & Schuster.

Behler, J.L. and E.W. King (1979) National Audubon Society® Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians.  NY: Knopf.

Beltz, E. (2005) Frogs: Inside Their Remarkable World.  Buffalo, NY:Firefly Books.

Bent, A.C. and Collaborators, ed. by P.Q. Newforth (1996-2007), Life Histories of North American Birds. PQN Web Page Design.  http://www.birdsbybent.com/  (Selected writings of Arthur Cleveland Bent, a pioneering ornithologist)

Borror, D.J. and R.E. White (1970) A Field Guide to Insects: America North of Mexico.  Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Bowers, N., R. Bowers and S. Tekiela (2008) Wildflowers of the Carolinas.  Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications

Brandenburg, D.M. (2010) National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Wildflowers of North America.  NY:Sterling.

Brock, J.P. and K. Kaufman (2003)  Butterflies of North America.  NY: Houghton Mifflin.

Brown, T.A.  (2002) Genomes. 2nd ed. Oxford:BIOS Scientific Publishers.

Cech, R. and G. Tudor (2005) Butterflies of the East Coast:  An Observer's Guide.  Princeton:Princeton University Press.

Ciccarelli, F.D., T. Doerks, C. von Mering, C.J. Creevey, B. Snel, P. Bork, Science 311, 5765  (2006). 

Covell, Jr.; C.V.; A Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America; Special Publication Number 12; Martinsville: Virginia Museum of Natural History

Conant, R. and J.T. Collins (1998) A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America.  Third Edition.  Expanded.  NY:Houghton Mifflin.

Curry, J.R. (2001) Dragonflies of Indiana.  Indiana Academy of Sciences.  

Daniels, J.C. (2003)  Butterflies of the Carolinas.  Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications.

Dawkins, R. (2004) The Ancestor's Tale.  NY:Houghton Mifflin.

Eaton, E.R. (2007) Kaufmann Field Guide to Insects of North America: The Easiest Guides for Fast Identification.  NY:Houghton-Mifflin.

Eisner, T. (2003) For Love of Insects.  Cambridge, MA:Belknap Press of Harvard U. Press.

Elzinga, R.J. (2004) Fundamentals of Entomology.  6th ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Front, S.W. (1959) Insect Life and Insect Natural History, 2nd rev. ed.  NY:Dover.

Gaddy, L.L. (2009) Spiders of the Carolinas. Duluth, MN:Kollath+Stensaas.Glassberg, J. (1999)  Butterflies through Binoculars: The East.  New York:Oxford U. Press

Gough, G.A., Sauer, J.R., Iliff, M. Patuxent Bird Identification Infocenter. 1998. Version 97.1. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD. http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/Infocenter/infocenter.html

Grimaldi, D. and M.S. Engel (2005) Evolution of the Insects.  Cambridge:Cambridge U. Press.

Griswold, C.E., J.A. Coddington, N.I. Platnick and R.R. Forster, Towards a Phylogeny of Entelegyne Spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). 1999. The Journal of Arachnology 27:53-63.

Hölldobler, B. and E.O. Wilson (2009) The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance and Strangeness of Insect Societies. NY:Norton.

Justice, W., C.R. Bell and A.H. Lindsey (2005) Wild Flowers of North Carolina, 2nd ed.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Levi, H.W. and L.R. Levi, rev. by J.P. Latimer and K.S. Nolting (2002) Spiders and Their Kin.  NY:St. Martin's Press.

Lewin, R. (1997)  Patterns in Evolution: The New Molecular View.  NY:Scientific American Library.

Marshall, S.A. (2006) Insects: Their History and Diversity.  Buffalo:Firefly Books, Inc.

Martof, B.S., W.M. Palmer, J.R. Bailey, J.R. Harrison III and J. Dermid (1980) Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia.  Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Milne, L. and M. (1980)  National Audubon Society® Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders.  NY:Knopf.

National Geographic Society (1987)  Birds of North America. 

Nelson, G. (2006) Atlantic Coast Wildflowers: A guide of common wildflowers of the coastal regions of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Northeastern Florida.  Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press.

Newcomb, L. (1977) Newcomb's Wildflower Guide.  NY:Little, Brown & Co.

Opler, P.A. and V. Malikul (1992)  A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies.  New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

Preston-Mafham, R and K. Preston-Mafham (1984) Spiders of the World.  NY: Facts on File.

 Pyle, R.M. (1981) The National Audubon Society® Field Guide to North American Butterflies.  New York: Knopf. 

Reid, G.K. Pond Life (2001).  Rev. and updated by J.P. Latimer, K.S. Nolting, and J.L. Brooks.  NY:St. Martin's Press.

Sibley, D.A. (2003) The Sibley Guide to Birds of Eastern North America.  NY: Knopf.

Sorrie, B.A. (2011) A Field Guide to Wildflowers of the Sandhill Region.  Chapel Hill: UNC Press.

Still, J. (2009) A Macroinvertebrate Study of Sandy Creek in Durham County, NC: A Comparative Study of Post-restoration and Pre-restoration Surveys. Retrieved 18 Sep 2014 from http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/951/Still_Jean_FINALMP.pdf?sequence=4

A Macroinvertebrate Survey of Sandy Creek in Durham
County, NC: A Comparative Study of

Tekiela, S. (2004) Birds of the Carolinas: Field Guide.  Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications.

Thompson II, B. and the Staff of Birdwatcher's Digest (2004)  North Carolina Bird Watching: A Year-Round Guide.  Nashville, TN: Cool Springs Press.

Wagner, D.L. (2005) Caterpillars of Eastern North America.  Princeton: Princeton U. Press

White, R.E. (1983).  A Field Guide to the Beetles of North America.  NY:Houghton-Mifflin.

Willey MB, Johnson MA, Adler PH: Predatory behavior of the basilica spider, Mecynogea lemniscata (Araneae, Araneidae).  (Accessed at http://psyche.entclub.org/99/99-153.html on July 11, 2010)

Wilson, Edward O. (1999) The Diversity of Life.  NY:Norton.

Wright, A.O. (1993).  Peterson First Guide to Caterpillars of North America.  NY:Houghton-Mifflin.



http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/  (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Web: photos included)
http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/BeePhylogeny/ (Cornell U. detailed descriptions of derivations of bee classifications from primary sources)
http://www.gbif.org/  (Global Biodiversity Information Facility: this merely points to databases, such as the ITIS, but is not really a database itself.  Any attributions of identifications to the GBIF on this websites are oversights.  This observation is based on the GBIF's Agreement rather than feedback, which I have not received.)
http://www.itis.gov/  (Integrated Taxonomic Information System: provides taxonomic relationships and names of experts in the field)
http://wwww.tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html  (Tree of Life Web Project hosted by The University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the University of Arizona Library, includes photos and detailed explanatory articles)
http://www.sp2000.org/   (Species 2000)

NORTH CAROLINA DIVISION OF PARKS AND RECREATION: Wildlife Photos and Sightings Statistics and Reports    (NC state Park Natural Resource Inventory Database)  ("Notes on the Butterflies of North Carolina": detailed actual butterfly counts within North Carolina)  (NC state Park dragonfly sighting database)


http://plants.usda.gov/  (Identification and geographical distribution of US plants)
http://www.ils.unc.edu/parkproject/nhp  (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, protects rare plants and animals)

http://www.ncnhp.org/Pages/publications.html (North Carolina Natural Heritage Program Publications)


Carnegie Museum of Natural History 


http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/agnic/sys_entomology/taxon/lepidoptera/  (NC State AgNIC Systematic Entomology links)


http://www.tlc-nc.org/tlcmap_popup.html  (The Triangle Land Conservancy: map of sites.  I have visited their Johnston Mill and White Pines Natural Areas, places where rare and downright unidentifiable critters abound!)
http://www.enoriver.org/  (The Eno River Association has worked effectively for many years to increase NC state park land around the Eno River and to prevent highways from going through it.)
http://www.ellerbecreek.org/ (Ellerbe Creek Watershed Assocation, devoted to making the creek pollution-free)
http://www.kvlt.org/ (Katawba Valley Land Trust: a private, nonprofit organization devoted to conservation activities in this South Carolina natural area)
http://www.hiltonpond.org  (Bird banding and education about local plants, animals and their environment)

Carolina Leps Listserv http://www.butterflydigest.com/s/digest.pl?rm=one_list;id=7  (to read posted messages)
    (To join the Carolina Leps forum, send message text "subscribe carolinaleps" to sympa@duke.edu)
Regional Birds Listservs http://www.virtualbirder.com/bmail/ (directions for subscribing to regional bird forums)
Carolina Birds Listserv http://www.virtualbirder.com/bmail/carolinabirds/latest.html (to read posted messages)
(To join the Carolina Birds forum, send message text "subscribe carolinabirds" to sympa@duke.edu)


http://www.carolinabirdclub.org/ (Carolina Bird Club)
http://www.carolinabutterflysociety.org/  (Carolina Butterfly Association: detailed documentation of butterfly counts, displaying some photos taken there)
http://www.biology.duke.edu/dnhs/  (Duke Natural History Society.  Organization that offers field trips to local, i.e., Durham and beyond naturalists, displays photos from field trips.  Links to many nature-oriented websites, grouped by topic)
http://www.newhopeaudubon.org/info/joinnhas.html  (New Hope chapter of the North Carolina Audubon Society)

http://www.bugguide.net/ (A huge database of arthropod photos.  Originated by Troy Bartlett, it includes photos and ID services by John and Jane Balaban, Patrick Coin, Stephen Cresswell, Eric Eaton, Bob Moul, Tom Murray, Lynette Schimmer,  and many others)
http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/MainMenu.shtml  (North American Moth Photographers Group at Mississippi State U.: these contain those mysterious "Hodge numbers.")
http://www.science-store.com/life/animal-info/insects/insect_identification.htm  (insect identification, down to suborder)
http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Caterpillars (ID caterpillars by color, pattern, hair density or distinctive features)
http://www.haysophill.com/Libellulidae.html#grid (Steve Krotzer's skimmer nymph ID guide)

INSPIRATION AND INFORMATION: Great Live Wildlife Photo Websites and Photo Collections

http://naturecloseups.com/ (Troy Bartlett's photos of Georgia insects)
http://www.texasento.net  (Mike Quinn's photos of Texas insects)
http://www.hr-rna.com/RNA/index.htm/  (Herschel Raney's Arkansas "Random Natural Acts" website)
http://www.giffbeaton.com/  (Comprehensive collection of Georgia and Florida odonata photos and information: use of thumbnails makes identification easy)
http://www.collembola.org/  (Frans Janssen's Springtail Site)
http://www.discoverlife.org/nh/tx/Insecta/Hymenoptera/Apoidea/  (Bee, wasp and ant identification info)
http://www.greglasley.net/dragonix.html (Greg Lasley's Texas Odonata pages)
http://www.rlephoto.com/  (Randy L Emmitt, professional butterfly/ode photographer and Web programming whiz)
  (Jeffrey S. Pippen, Duke butterfly expert: provides photos of butterflies and skippers all taken in their natural habitats, with locations and dates of photos)
http://www.duke.edu/web/butterflies/ (Duke Forest butterflies)
http://www.duke.edu/~cwcook/pix/butterflies.html  (Will Cook, Duke butterfly expert: provides photos of butterflies and skippers all taken in their natural habitats, with locations and dates of photos)
http://www.carolinanature.com/ (Will Cook's new wildlife website)
http://www.ncwings.com/  (Ted and Linda Wilcox's photos of butterflies, dragonflies and wildflowers, most notably those from the NC mountains) 
http://thebusinessbirder.com/ (John Ennis' website, with photos of many species of birds)
http://www.odolep.com (David Czaplak's Dragonflies, Butterflies, and Moths site, including Josh Rose's dragonfly photos)
http://www.duke.edu/~jsr6/  (Josh Rose, Ph.D., did Duke dissertation on Dragonflies/Damselflies:  lots of photos of live Odonata and other types of animals in their natural habitat in the context of narratives about trips)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/36582974@N03/ (Matt Daw's extensive collection of animal photos)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/longspur (Ali Iyoob's extensive collection of animal photos)
http://home.att.net/~butterflygardener/index.html  (Ann's Butterfly Garden: Ann, who lives in Richland, SC, raises butterflies from eggs and photographs them.  I'm in awe of anyone who can put together a decent butterfly garden, especially one this good!) http://www.wisconsinbutterflies.org/
http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/StratfordLandingES/Ecology/mpages/organism_menu.htm  (Stratford Landing Elementary School of Fairfax County, VA instructional website describing ecological relationships among many animal and plant species)
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/library/spotid/index.html  (Spot ID page, for insect identification, associated with NCSU's General Entomology course)
http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/insects/000000n.html (The University of Minnesota's Taxonomic Survey of the Cedar Creek Natural Area: remarkably comprehensive guide; done by John Haarstad, Resident Naturalist at Cedar Creek)
http://insectdatabases.oeb.harvard.edu/caribbean/fieldguides.htm (Field Guides to Major Insect Familites,The President and Fellows at Harvard College)
http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/  (Featured Creatures: U. of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services)
http://insects.tamu.edu/images/insects/common/ (Texas A&M University at College Station: Discover Entomology)
http://www.forestryimages.org/ (Coverage of insect pests, by The University of Georgia - Warnell School of Forest Resources and
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Dept. of Entomology
http://www.nearctica.com/butter/  (Paul A. Opler, Ray E. Stanford, Harry Pavulaan, et al., Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center: this identification guide uses dorsal and ventral views for both sexes for all but some rare butterflies and skippers and national distribution map of species sighting reports by county, grouped by both family/genus names and habitat)
http://www.enature.com/guides/select_Butterflies.asp  (Index in form of multiple thumbnail photos of butterflies per page)
http://www.acleris.com/dls/mothhome.html  (Lynn Scott's Lepidoptera Page)
 http://www.origins.tv/MothPhotographersGroup/mainmenu.htm (a comprehensive fully-identified collection of moth photos)
http://www.origins.tv/MothPhotographersGroup/Files/Live/Newman.htm (Randy Newman's extensive moth photo collection, with identifications)

http://eny3005.ifas.ufl.edu/lab1/index.htm (Insect classifications, U. of Florida)
http://www.forestpests.org (Photos and descriptions of moth and butterfly caterpillars)

http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/narcam/idguide/index.htm  (Amphibian species identification guide)
http://www.birds.cornell.edu/programs/AllAboutBirds/BirdGuide/  (Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology)
http://www.meloidae.com/ (Stanislav Krejcik's blister beetle site)
http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/insects/cateast/families.htm (Caterpillars of Eastern Forests)

BIRD, BUTTERFLY AND MOTH COUNTS/DISTRIBUTIONS:  Where these animals are found in the U.S. (USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center's data on bird summer sightings for many species broken down by county within state)
  (USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center's data on butterfly sightings by county within state)
http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/lepid/moths/mothsusa.htm (moth data from above organization for the Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Notodontidae, Arctiidae, and Noctuidae families)


http://plants.usda.gov/threat.html (Information on individual endangered and threatened plant species in the US)
http://www.ncnhp.org/Pages/guide.htm (Information on individual endangered and threatened species in North Carolina)
http://www.basic.ncsu.edu/ncgap/  (North Carolina Gap Analysis Project)

REWRITING THE BUTTERFLY BOOKS: New species identification is ongoing!
http://www.tils-ttr.org/  The International Lepidoptera Survey: The Taxonomic Report.  Ron Gatrelle, a publishing lepidopterist, founded this journal and has often generously shared his expertise with me I requested it.  Alex Grkovich, another lepidopterist who contributes to this journal, has given me similar help and did all he could to turn me into a Buckeye Butterfly expert.


http://raleighnature.com/  (The Natural History of Raleigh) John Dancy-Jones' account of the human and natural history of some natural areas in Raleigh, NC)
http://rlephoto.blogspot.com/ (Randy and Meg's Garden Paradise)  Randy Emmitt's account of the flora and fauna at his home in rural north Durham County, NC.
http://my.opera.com/sarcoptes/blog/  (Roy Erling Wrånes' blog about his study of arachnids in Finnmark County, Norway)


Kurt Amesbury, Jean Bohs, John Cassidy, David L. Green, Paul Hinrichs, Lynn Morris, John Nation, Michelle Phillips, Cindy Privette, Mike Tetzlaff, Caity Thomas, Adolph Thomas, Mary Ross Withrow.  See Contact Us for permission to use them

VOLUNTEERED: People who provided me with valued information shown on this website

Tim Allison (dragonflies); Susan Andrews (Round-lobed Hepatica); John and Jane Balaban  (many species); Amy Barbe (African Guinea Fowl); Andy Calderwood (fungus gnat); Bob Cavanaugh (Round-lobed Hepatica); Patrick Coin (a variety of animals); Will Cook of Duke U. (butterflies and birds); Stephen Cresswell (treehopper); Greg Dodge of Brownbag Productions (birds); Randy Emmitt (butterflies and dragonflies); Eric Eaton (a great variety of insects); KC Foggin (birds); Jules Fraytet (red velvet mite); Adalbert Goertz (beetles); Andy Hamilton (hoppers); Garrett Hersh (crustaceans); Maury J. Heiman (moths), Jeff Hollenbeck (spiders); David Hollie (birds);  Frans Janssen (springtails); Alan Kneidel (ground skink); Stanislav Krejcik (blister beetles); Harry LeGrand (Palatka Skipper, Tropical Checkered Skipper), John T. Lill;  R. Maxwell (beetles); Sean McCann (beetles); Jim McClarin (beetles); Beatriz Moisset (Megahilid bees); Patrick Moran (spiders); John Nation; Janie Harmon Owens (wildflowers); Bryan Pfeiffer (dragonflies); Jeff Pippen of Duke U. (butterflies); Mike Quinn of Texas Parks & Wildlife (true bugs); Josh Rose, Ph.D., Duke University (a large variety of animals); Curtis Smalling, of the National Audubon Society's North Carolina State Office (dragonflies); Rob Westerduijn (Chrysomeloid beetles); Doug Yanega, Ph.D., of the University of California at Riverside (a variety of obscure arthropods); Chen W. Young, Ph.D., of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (crane flies). 

Special thanks go to Josh Rose, who encouraged me to expand my knowledge beyond birds and butterflies and gave me the guidance necessary for me to accomplish this; to Eric R. Eaton, who provided many identifications of obscure insects; Randy Emmitt, who provided a good deal of relevant advice and encouragement when my website was in its early stages; John S. Ascher, who gave me extensive help on my Hymenoptera page; John and Jane Balaban, who provided identifications for a large number of insects and spiders; Maury J. Heiman, who identified many obscure moths; and to v belov,  who has provided countless and various identifications.  BugGuide.net has provided many IDs: some I obtained by looking them up and some were provided by individuals in response to my image submissions.


Prof. Norman F. Johnson, of Ohio State U. (Professor of Entomology; Director, C.A. Triplehorn Insect Collection)


http://catinkacards.tripod.com/   (Catinka Knoth - Maine Watercolors:  Beautiful paintings of a beautiful part of the country and its wildlife; art lessons)


Adobe Dreamweaver, formerly Microsoft® Office Expression Web 3® 



I took the photographs with a Canon EOS Digital Rebel with a 50 mm lens for small insect pictures, and processed photos with the Microsoft® Office Picture Manager: This involved croppings, and sometimes brightness and contrast adjustments done to compensate for dim lighting at photo sites.   

I  used Adobe Photoshop CC, CS6, and CS5 and Adobe Elements 8 to create my art.


Wild Birds Unlimited®

NETWORKING AND GENERAL TECHNICAL WIZARD:  He made this website possible.

Karl D. Gottschalk




copyright 2004-2011 Dorothy Pugh